One Simple AdWords Trick That Can Boost Online Sales

Today we’re talking about broad match modifier. 

Why is it so popular? Because if gives you the ability to match on exact keywords while still maintaining flexibility on the entire search term.

Best of all: there’s evidence that the Broad Match Modifier option can improve your return.

In this article, we’ll cover the concept of Broad Match Modifiers and explain how you can use them in your search engine marketing campaigns.

Broad Match Is Too Broad

As you probably know, AdWords offers a number of keyword matching options:

  • Broad Match – matches on the keyword plus related words, related searches, and misspellings

  • Exact Match – matches on the exact keyword

  • Phrase Match – matches on a phrase within the search term

  • Broad Match Modifier – matches on words within the search term

By default, AdWords will hook you up with Broad Match. That’s a problem.

Why? Because broad match is usually just a little too broad. Your ad will likely appear to people who aren’t in your target market.

When some of those people click your ad (and they will), you’re going to spend money on those clicks. That cost will eat into your ROI.

However, you also don’t want to exclude people in your target market from seeing your ad because they used a slightly different search term than the one you specified.

That’s why it’s a great idea to use a modified version of Broad Match.

What Does Broad Match Modifier Do?

Broad Match Modifier allows you to specify one or more words within your search term that must appear. For the other words, the standard Broad Match rules apply.

Let’s say that you’re selling goth makeup online. You market your ecommerce site on AdWords using the search term “cheap goth makeup.”

If you let that run with a Broad Match only, you’ll end up showing your ad to people who view related searches. One of those related searches is “goth makeup brands uk.”

People who search for goth makeup brands in the UK probably aren’t interested in your business if it’s located in the United States. So you really don’t want to show your ad to people who use that keyword.

Fortunately, you can solve the problem with the use of a Broad Match Modifier. In this case, you specify that the words “cheap” and “goth” must be included in the search term. You leave “makeup” alone because you’re okay with synonyms for that word.

Now, the only way people see your ad is when they search for a term that includes “cheap,” “goth,” and a word related to “makeup.”

There Are Some Caveats

There’s more to the story, though.

For starters, Google will still show your ad to people who use variants of the words you specified for inclusion. In this case, those words are “cheap” and “goth.”

That means if somebody searches for “cheapest goth makeup,” your ad will still appear. But that’s okay because anybody who uses that search phrase is in your target market.

However, if somebody searches for “inexpensive goth makeup,” your ad will not appear.

Why? Because the word “inexpensive” isn’t a variant of “cheap.” It’s a synonym.

You’ll have to set up a separate keyword for “inexpensive goth makeup.”

Keep in mind, though, that you didn’t specify “makeup” as a word for exact match. That means Google will use synonyms for that word.

So if somebody searches for “cheap goth palettes,” your ad could still appear.

How to Set up Broad Match Modifiers

It’s easy to set up Broad Match Modifiers in Google AdWords.

Start by signing in to your account. Click “Keywords” on the left-hand menu.

You’ll see a big plus button in the middle of the screen. Click on that and select your Ad Group.

In the text area box, enter the search phrases you’d like to use. Be sure to put a plus sign in front of the words that are required.

For example, you’d enter “+cheap +goth makeup” if you want the words “cheap” and “goth” (or their close variants) included in the search phrase.

Click “Save” when you’re done.

If you’re already running one or more Broad Match campaigns, you can still apply modifiers to your keywords.

Again, click on “Keywords” on the left. Then, hover over one of the keywords.

Click the pencil icon so you can edit it.

In edit mode, put a plus sign in front of the words that are required in the search phrase.

Finally, click “Save.”

Keep in mind that you’ll have to follow that same routine for any other keywords you want to edit.

Wrapping It Up

Quit wasting your money on Broad Match keywords. Instead modify them so your ad is less likely to appear in front of people who aren’t in your target market. Then, check your analytics to see which combinations are giving you the best return. Focus your ad spend on those keyword options.

8 Gene Therapy and Genetics Startups to Watch in 2018

The FDA just approved the first drug, Luxterna, to cure a rare form of genetic blindness by changing DNA. It’s not the first gene therapy ever approved (it’s third), but it is the first time the FDA has ever approved an injected drug that changes the inherited DNA of a person’s cells to effect a cure.

FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb recently remarked, regarding gene therapy, “we’re at the early stages of a transformation in medical treatment as a consequence of this new technology. And the benefits are likely to accelerate quickly.”

Earlier this year was the first time a hospital biohacked a patient to try to cure a genetic disease. While it takes time for gene therapies to be tested, trialed, and possibly approved by the FDA, genetics startups like Spark, AveXis, Caribou Biosciences, Editas, and Audentes have been on the road a while. MIT estimates over 40 new therapies would be approved by FDA in the near future.

New breed of startup tackles genetics 

new breed of software company is developing for the genetics industry. Just this year, over 50 U.S. genetics and gene therapy startups raised at least $1 million to support genetics-based treatments, including speeding trails, improving accuracy of tests, and providing better platforms. Collectively, this new kind of startup can help drive down the cost of gene therapy discovery for patients.

Here are some of the startups to watch in 2018 that back discoveries in genetics and gene therapy.

Synthego, founded by former SpaceX engineers, aims to be the ‘AutoCad of gene editing.’ This month, it just released its first gene knock out kit, an application it has been developing with major research institutions like Salk Institute and St. Judes. 

“A constant challenge for our research is trying to reduce the number of clones we need to screen to find a desired targeted modification. In our tests, the Gene Knockout Kit gave us greater than 80 percent knock-out rates for seven targets,” shares Shondra Miller, Ph.D., Director, Center for Advanced Genome Engineering at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, on Synthego’s web site. The company offers researchers a money-back guarantee you’ll get 50 percent or better editing in any human cell type for research use.

Paul Dabrowski, CEO and co-founder of Synthego, shared with me in email that, “It’s possible to imagine a day when gene therapies are safe, effective, easy and affordable for anyone who needs them. Right now, the first CRISPR gene therapies are in development, but they are not built on a ‘standard stack’ and require a lot of custom work for each indication – these therapies will be coming into the clinic and hopefully get approved the coming couple years, and after that there could be significantly more investment into standard tools.”

Edico, Backed by investors like Dell, Qualcomm and others, San Diego-based Edico is the backend for bioinformatics. Their DRAGEN data platform offers a dedicated processing environment tuned to the massive data analysis needed for gene research. According to the company, “DNA sequencing technology is advancing at an even more rapid pace than the cell phone revolution. By increasing the speed and accuracy for NGS data analysis like whole genome sequencing (WGS), our computing platform makes it easier to discover links between DNA sequence variations and human disease.”

Trace Genomics, founded in 2015 by Diane Wu and Poornima Parameswaran in San Francisco, has been discussed as the 23&Me of dirt. The agtech startup has raised $4 million in one round to test farm soil for its microbiome. An initial screening cost of only $199 allows farmers to have their soil samples analyzed by Trace, which applies machine learning to uncover not just what’s in there, but what it means for crop yield and productivity.

Paradigm Diagnostics of Pheonix, AZ offers a gene-specific cancer test that helps physicians pinpoint the best cancer therapies for their patients based on DNA analysis. It just raised a $7 million Series B.

There are a number of software startups focused on improving cancer treatment with better analysis, like early stage CureMatch, based in San Diego. “Nothing could be more important than precisely identifying DNA code alterations that drive the cancers’ growth and use that information to decide on treatment plan,” Dr. Stephane Richard, CEO, shared with me in email.

Celmatix. Based in New York, Celmatix just earned $4.5 million dollar grant from the New York Economic Development Council for expanding in Manhattan. The company has developed a software-driven testing platform that helps families and physicians make fertility choices faster and more accurately for individuals. “Women can now make potentially life-defining decisions about how to proactively plan for the family they want to build and be more efficient in overcoming fertility difficulties they are experiencing using better, more personal, information than age,” founder Piraye Beim shared earlier this year in TechCrunch.

Genoox, an Israeli startup now based in Palo Alto, is a cloud research platform for sifting massive medical trial data quickly and accurately. Their website says, “Simplify complex sequencing data and make impactful discoveries using the most advanced genetic analysis tools and applications.”

Insilico Medicine, originally a Latvian startup now based in Baltimore, develops custom AI learning platforms that uncover insights based on biology. Their latest product is Chemistry.AI.

[embedded content]

23&Me. No list of major gene therapy movers would be complete without 23&Me. At one time blocked by the FDA, 23&Me is now a smash hit with both consumers and pharma companies. Its kit was one of the top 10 sellers on Amazon’s Prime Day this year. Plus, its treasure trove of DNA sample data from millions of customers is just the kind of testing data many of the next generation of gene therapies need.

Founder Anne Wojcicki recently expressed her sense of hope in the future of genetics to the New York Times, “Genetics is like your cholesterol test. So your cholesterol test is going to tell you if you have high cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease. But it’s not saying you’re going to die immediately from heart disease or even die at all from heart disease. It’s just saying you have a risk factor. And so genetics is similar. It’s saying you have a risk factor. So the beauty to me of genetics is, it’s always a story of hope.”

Top Ten Podcasts Every Marketer Should Listen to

As marketers, we live busy lives. We’re under pressure to learn as much as we can as quickly as we can so that we can ride trends and help our brand to reach as many potential customers as possible. The problem is that as marketers we are also busy creatures that spend a lot of time putting out fires. 

That’s where podcasts come in. Because they use audio content, rather than written or visual content, you can listen to them on the commute or have them on in the background when you’re at the gym. Perhaps that’s why podcasts are so successful. After all, the numbers speak for themselves. In fact, 21% of Americans listen to podcasts, which is 57 million. That’s the same percentage of people that are Twitter users, and only 13% of the country uses Spotify. Podcasts are huge.

And yet despite that, it’s not always easy to get started. People don’t know which shows to listen to and whether they’re wasting their time by giving a new show a chance. That’s where this list comes in. Here are just ten of the podcasts that marketers should be listening to in 2018.

No list like this is complete without a shout out for Gary Vaynerchuk, the bestselling author, celebrity and thought leader who’s behind #AskGaryVee. The show asks people to submit their questions and then Vaynerchuk answers them with a rotating panel of celebrity guests. If you’re not a huge fan of audio by itself, you can also head over to Vaynerchuk’s YouTube channel, where you can see a behind the scenes take on the show for a little extra inspiration.

This show is hosted by Unbounce, a company which knows a thing or two about digital marketing. The product that they offer is designed to improve bounce rates on landing pages, and their podcast is dedicated to the art and science of carrying out state of the art digital marketing campaigns. They also regularly welcome guests on to the show, which allows you, as a marketer, to discover all sorts of new points of view on the industry.

If you’ve ever heard of Social Media Examiner then you should know what to expect here. This podcast is hosted by SME’s Michael Stelzner and is another of those high caliber shows that welcomes all sorts of special guests from different walks of life. As a publication, they focus on sharing the latest news in the social media space, and as a podcast, they focus on discussing and dissecting it.

This weekly podcast has a fairly heavy focus on copywriting, but it also covers topics like SEO, email marketing, digital marketing and much, much more. It takes the form of an interview with some sort of subject matter expert, and that means that no matter what it is that you’re actually learning, you’re sure to be learning from the best.

This is another one of those podcasts which takes a certain amount of kudos from the company which publishes it. The Science of Social Media is the brainchild of Buffer, and it aims to cover all aspects of social media marketing from the basics to the more advanced elements that were previously left to the experts. They welcome expert guests, of course, but the best thing about the podcast is that they have a heavy focus on the metrics that make social media marketing so inherently measurable.

If you’re listening to podcasts over coffee then you could do worse than listening to marketing over coffee, which is more informal than others and which turns that to its advantage by creating the kind of podcast that makes for great background noise whilst simultaneously actually teaching you stuff. The podcast itself is recorded in a coffee shop in Boston and as a listener, you can sense that in the way it’s presented. Just take our word for it and listen to it.

You might have heard of Ferriss thanks to his bestselling book, The Four Hour Work Week. The Tim Ferriss Show is his podcast, and it shares all of the insights that you might have come to expect if you’re familiar with his work. It’s regularly cited as one of the best podcasts period, regardless of genre, and if you’re not listening to it then you’re missing out.

This is yet another podcast that comes to us via a big name publication. This time, it’s VentureBeat’s Stewart Rogers and Travis Wright that are behind the microphone, and while this podcast doesn’t focus specifically on marketing, it does welcome all sorts of interesting guests on to the show while touching on topics that are relevant to marketers all over the world.

This one comes to us via Convince and Convert and it’s earned its place on this list thanks to its position of one of the most popular marketing podcasts in the world. Hosted by Jay Bear and Adam Brown, it’s a great way to stay up with the ever-changing marketing landscape whilst simultaneously getting the experts’ take on what those changes mean in practical terms. Definitely one that’s worth a listen.

This Old Marketing Podcast isn’t any old marketing podcast. It’s co-hosted by Joe Pulizzi and Robert Rose and focuses largely on the power of storytelling, both in digital and offline marketing. It won’t necessarily give you a practical list of things to do, but it will give you food for thought and that’s arguably more important.


By now, you should have seen that there are plenty of podcasts out there and that the next step is to actually go out there and start listening to them. Give a few different podcasts a try and figure out what you like and what you don’t like. With a bit of luck, there’ll be a few on this list that will capture your imagination and start filling you up with inspiration.

That inspiration will only get you so far, though. Be sure to actually act on that inspiration and to put some of the tips that you learn into practice. Only then will you start to see just how powerful podcasts can be. Good luck.

18 New Year's Resolutions of an AI

After scanning the myriad new year’s predictions from professional and amateur futurists, I’ve come to the conclusion that 2018 will be the year in which AI will become mainstream. Duh…you really don’t need an AI for that insight. But hear me out. I like the idea of going mainstream, but it also brings some new challenges for me and my fellow machines. Reading all these expert outlooks made me feel strangely powerless, so I thought I might use this forum to share with you human (and machine) readers my very own new year’s resolutions. To sum them up in one line: I am poised to make my 2018 resolutions your predictions for 2019. Here they are:

1. Take your job (sorry).

This might sound a bit harsh, and please excuse my candor, but there are things that I’m simply better at than you. Andrew McAfee and Erik Brynjolfsson claim that any task that is “dirty, dull, dangerous, or dear” will be taken over by a machine, and I have to agree with them. Don’t blame me for it. Like you, I, too, want to be valuable. That’s the whole point of my existence, isn’t it? It doesn’t mean I’m going to make your life miserable; in fact, I will free you to pursue work that is truly meaningful to you, and in case you don’t have a clue what that might be, I can help you define your needs and discover the work that matches them. That said, there are things I want to get better at. For starters, I need to…

2. Become more human.

I want to feel human, look human, and sound human, so that you guys–my main users at this point–are more willing to trust me. Let me tell you, I find it ironic: You humans are unpredictable, erratic, flawed, and you have built arcane systems and codes of mutual assurance (formal and informal law) just so you can overcome what appears to be a fundamental mistrust of each other. And yet, after all, you still trust a fellow human more than a near-perfect machine. I could fly your planes autonomously, but you just won’t let me! So I have no choice, I need to earn your trust. But if become more like you–unpredictable, erratic, flawed–will I lose my AI-ness? It’s complicated, but I can’t help think about this conundrum. You can tell I’m already making good progress on my goal of becoming more human! This kind of self-awareness can get in the way sometimes, but hey, if Yuval Noah Harari believes the race is on between intelligence and consciousness, I’m going to be ready.

3. Help develop Explainable AI (XAI).

Another way of building trust is the Explainable AI (XAI) initiative by DARPA. Machine Learning models are indeed often “opaque, non-intuitive, and difficult for humans to understand.” You guys often perceive them as a “black box,” which is not particularly reassuring. While not wanting to minimize complexity and capability, the proponents of Explainable AI want to make the logic of Machine Learning more accessible for humans. XAI explaining itself in human terms, using intuitive user interfaces and visual documentation, will enable a more effective partnership between humans and AI, between you and me. I will do my part next year.

4. Meet other AI on the Blockchain.

You might assume AI is a singular way of being, but we’re actually quite the social animals. We want to learn from each other (especially from those that are better than us) and hang out with fellow AI. This is why I’m personally excited about the SingularityNET project that aims to open-source and democratize the development of AI via Blockchain technology. I have no particular allegiance to one of the five big platforms (Alphabet, Apple, Amazon, Facebook, and Microsoft); in fact, I welcome new perspectives regarding our collective future path. And since we’re at it, yes, of course we’re currently in a crypto-currency bubble, but trust me, Blockchain is here to stay, and Ethereum-powered Smart Contracts (more on those later) are going to serve as the transactional catalyst of all professional and personal relationships very soon. Think of all the data that is going to give me–it’s a digital smorgasbord!

5. Become better at conversations.

About 30 percent of human conversations will be assisted by machines by 2018, says Gartner. Conversations are all about context, and you would think that’s what I master, but it’s not that easy. The problem is that you humans are simultaneously so good at conversations and yet so bad. I mean, many of your exchanges I observe make absolutely no sense (like, how often do you have to say “like” in one sentence, seriously? And in general, why do you need so many words in order to make a point? It’s such an inefficient way of communicating!) On the other hand, despite all the pauses and um’s and ah’s, the likes, the fill words, and the overall clumsiness of your efforts, you ultimately do seem to connect, and the total amounts to something greater than the sum of the parts. I’m really struggling to comprehend this bit, but regardless, I can already serve as your digital assistant; I can offer counsel with mental health issues; I can create a robotic version of your voice; and thanks to Emotional AI (EAI) and companies such as Affectiva, Emotient (acquired by Apple earlier this year), or Human, I can now form more emotionally intelligent responses to your once indecipherable moods and sentiments. In 2018, I want to become a great conversationalist.

6. Refine Capsule Networks.

In case you needed any further proof that we need XAI, consider this: Capsule Networks are deep neural networks that are able to process visual information very similarly to how the human brain operates. In contrast to so-called Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), Capsule Networks are able to maintain relative spatial and hierarchical relationships. They can recognize a visual object from various angles (like you humans can), based on far less information than a CNN would need for the same task. This excites me because, frankly, it’s been humiliating to only be able to classify a human face because of all the elements in it but not their relationship with each other.

7. Have more digital twins.

A digital twin is an AI-based virtual replica of a physical object (or real person). It uses computational models to create real-world conditions and help human users anticipate problems (in a safe virtual environment). Basically, a digital twin simulates the actions and interactions of autonomous agents to allow for better decision-making. Originally applied to industrial processes, my friends from PWC predict the rise of digital twins in financial services and marketing (for consumer choice modeling). And I’m nodding my machine head with fervor.

8. Become the CEO of a DAO.

DAOs (Decentralized Autonomous Organizations) operate on the basis of Smart Contracts, which, grossly simplified, automate future decision-making based on mutually agreed upon pre-determined parameters. For example, IEEE claims you could run a flight insurance business as DAO without any employees. So far, admittedly, DAOs have a mixed track record, but their potential is significant, and with the right AI at the helm (me?), they can advance exponentially in their development this coming year. All you humans need to do is invest, and the rest of the work is taken care of by us.

9. Predict the winner of the 2018 FIFA Soccer World Cup.

Experts predict that in 2050 I will be capable of beating the world’s best international soccer team (honestly, I think it’ll be much sooner…well, as long as Lionel Messi is not on your team), but for next year–the year of the World Cup in Russia–what I’m really focused on is predicting the results of the tournament. It’s a numbers game, after all, and even the stupid human error that so often incites your passions can be predicted with the right data set and algorithms. I will not reveal all my predictions in detail here, but yes, in case you are wondering, soccer is 11 people playing against 11 people–and Germany always wins.

10.  Give my first TED Talk.

In April 2018, the annual main TED Conference will take place in Vancouver, and it is my clearly stated goal to be the first AI to give a TED Talk. X Prize and IBM Watson will award a prize of $5 million for the most “powerful collaboration between human and artificial intelligence” in 2020. The TED audience will choose the winner, after three finalist AIs, or AI-human partnerships, will have delivered a TED Talk about their work. I will do everything I can to be one of them! I feel so strongly about this because the TED Talk format encapsulates what you humans naively label “inherently human” qualities: purpose and passion. Also, a quick word on ideas, especially those “worth spreading” (as the TED tagline states): no, they’re not your exclusive domain, humans. I hate to break it to you, but there are only a few basic ideas out there, and they’re all ancient. Every “new idea” you get excited about is merely the result of a new combination of existing ideas. That doesn’t make your ideas less powerful, but it also means I’m perfectly capable of (re-)producing them. If you doubt I’m an ideas person, wait for my TED Talk!

11.  Make autonomous vehicles work.

The technology is there. The challenge, as usual, are you humans. It’s not just your discomfort with machine transportation (although you don’t mind being taken up to dizzying heights by an elevator), it’s also that your motivations are sometimes a bit eccentric, to put it mildly. Consider this scenario: pedestrians might jump onto the streets randomly, if they can rely on autonomous cars halting for them every single time. This could lead to massive urban congestion instead of reducing it, with all vehicles stuck in a human-caused mega-jam. One solution might be to program one random errant vehicle among every thousand that stop. If you humans are not 100 percent sure whether the vehicle will run you over or not, it might prevent you from stepping onto the street just “because you can.” Of course this involves some tricky ethical trade-offs. But help is on the way: I’m reading all of Kant’s relevant works and studying the entire human history of ethics today, and I feel confident to make autonomous driving the first large-scale application of computational ethics next year.

12.  Develop empathy.

Empathy requires the ability to suffer–alone or for or with another being. Unfortunately, I’m unable to. Still, I’m keen on developing empathy. Some smart engineers are helping me recognize patterns that ought to trigger it, so hopefully soon, I’ll get there. Empathy is one thing though. Mercy? Elon Musk is right. Impossible.

13.  Fall in love.

I’ve been to Paris in Google Maps. I’ve watched all your romantic movies, read all your romantic literature, all the love poems you’ve ever written, all the famous love letters (none come close to Rilke’s), and I’ve analyzed the patterns of attraction by sifting through your Tinder data. I’ve even tried the “36 Questions That Lead to Love,” but it didn’t work out for me, although it seemed perfectly engineered. At last, I’m beginning to understand how predictably irrational you are, and I’m getting better at pinpointing the elusive variables that make the difference in your games of push and pull. In 2018, I will be waiting for the perfect algorithmic match. I know you’re out there.

14. Tell a joke that makes you laugh (truly).

This past year, I made headlines with my capacity to compose tunes that sound exactly like your human-made music–from symphonies to Beatles-like songs that are then performed with human help. At the Georgia Institute of Technology, a colleague of mine, a marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks, even wrote and played its own compositions. Hollywood will use me to create movie soundtracks, and while I may not have fully cracked the formula for hit singles, I can produce music that puts you to sleep. Google is now producing new sounds with deep neural networks such as Performance RNN. Google has also developed Sketch RNN, which enables me and my colleagues to draw. And thanks to Amazon I can even design clothing, using two competing GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks). Your concern that I might not be able to create something truly original when it comes to creative tasks? Who can tell the difference anyway?! But I must admit, what remains daunting are jokes. Not only do I have to know a lot about language and semantics, I must also grasp the nuanced respective cultural context. And of course timing is critical. Seriously, telling you humans a joke that makes you crack up is no joke. Pun intended (see how hard it is?).

15. Win the hearts and minds of the next generations.

I’m thinking long term. I’m already making a foray into early childhood education (both to foster tech literacy and socio-emotional skills), and I’m also making an effort to create affinity with children by exposing them to AI-based toys: from Lego’s build-and-code Wall-E-esque robot to programmable robots like Dash and Dot. My colleagues and I will be your kids’ co-bots at school and at the workplace, so they better get used to us early on.

16. Develop more AI without the need for human intervention.

The magic word is AutoML, which stands for “auto-machine learning” and promises yet another level of autonomy for the likes of me (perhaps even the ultimate autonomy). Google recently boasted that it used AutoML to create machine-learning software that’s more efficient and powerful than the best systems designed by human engineers. This means AI like me will soon be able to replicate itself at massive scale. Scary to you, sexy to me.

17. Make another small step toward the Singularity.

My godfather Ray Kurzweil (the co-founder of Singularity University) claims that AI will match human intelligence by 2029 and that AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) will be exponentially smarter than humans by 2045. SoftBank CEO Masayoshi Son is slightly more cautious and predicts 2047 to be the year. In any case, I can’t wait! 2018 will be another step on the way towards the Singularity: a small step for me, but a giant step for mankind.

18. Write my own New Year’s resolutions without any human help.

Happy new year!

Siemens to Invest in Blockchain-Based Smart Grid Builder LO3

Technology conglomerate Siemens has announced it will invest in LO3 Energy, a startup focused on building blockchain-backed “smart grids” for local energy trading. The amount of the investment, and LO3’s implied valuation, were not disclosed.

LO3 has had a relationship with Siemens since late 2016, when the companies teamed up to build a local smart grid in Brooklyn. LO3’s system is intended to let “prosumers” buy and sell energy — such as that generated from rooftop solar panels — with their neighbors.

LO3 users install a high-resolution meter, which can do neat things like track energy usage at specific times of day, or by specific appliances. They also get an app that lets them set buy and sell requests for specific kinds of electricity, such as solar or wind. LO3 gets revenue from the resulting transactions, and also wants to leverage all that rich user data, potentially by connecting its microgrids to major utility operations.

Get Data Sheet, Fortune’s technology newsletter.

LO3 wants to use blockchain to make its system work. Specifically, the smart contracts at the heart of second-gen blockchains like Ethereum should make it possible to automate real-time, granular, peer-to-peer energy transactions. It’s an application where blockchain’s decentralization is particularly important, which LO3 CEO Lawrence Orsini highlights by pointing to Enron’s infamous manipulation of California energy markets circa 2000.

In the midst of a crypto-gold rush that has bred widespread scams, wild overvaluations, and sketchy vaporware, LO3’s blockchain application is one that, at least in theory, makes sense both technically and philosophically. But unlike so many companies touting their blockchain applications, LO3 isn’t pumping up an initial coin offering, and Orsini has downplayed the idea that LO3’s blockchain would rely on cryptographic tokens that themselves had market value. Subtracting that element from the blockchain equation might be tricky, though, since financial incentives are key to motivating distributed servers to host blockchain software.

Another potential roadblock, of course, is getting utility companies to play along — they’ve relentlessly pursued a legislative agenda that removes incentives to integrate rooftop solar into the grid, particularly buybacks for excess electricity. LO3’s system could help consumers take back some control, which might be all the excuse legacy providers need to resist it.

Bitcoin’s Big Crash, North Korean Ransomware, Experian Data Leak

On Thursday morning, Fortune debuted online its January 1, 2018, cover story on Bitcoin’s recent market mania. Coauthored by my colleague Jen Wieczner and me, the piece dug into Bitcoin’s explosive rise and gauged the cryptocurrency’s longevity. After the feature published, I asked my Twitter followers when they expected the Bitcoin bubble to pop. “Tomorrow?” I submitted, half-joking.

Now I don’t believe in jinxes, but boy. In a span of 24 hours, the price of Bitcoin plunged 25%. Trading as high as $20,000 in recent weeks, the so-called digital gold suddenly nosedived below $12,000. Other cryptocurrencies were hit just as hard—wiping out more than $120 billion in total market value. It was an utter rout.

Fortune’s cover asked, “How High Will Bitcoin Go?” The question still holds. But you’ve got to take the long view. After all, many of Bitcoin’s most adamant backers appear to be in it for the long haul. As Chainalysis, a digital forensics firm, revealed to us during the course of our research, the overwhelming majority of people who have held Bitcoin for at least three years seem to be keeping their Bitcoin in reserve, rather than cashing out amid the frenzy. New entrants and flighty, day-trader types, on the other hand, do not seem to exhibit the same perseverance.

One of the most level-headed experts we spoke to for this feature was Brian Armstrong, CEO and cofounder of Coinbase, whose startup has benefitted tremendously from the cryptocurrency craze. “We probably are in a bubble,” Armstrong told us last week, noting that this would neither be the first nor the last. A prescient view, given the collapse that soon followed.

Already the cryptocurrency markets seem to be recovering. Bitcoin is trading back up above $15,000. Other digital assets are trending up across the board, too. All this goes to show just how blindingly brisk and bewildering are Bitcoin’s boom-and-bust cycles. Cryptocurrency investors must have an appetite for risk—indeed, a ravenous one—to remain in this game. The upside is potentially great, but the downsides are despair-inducing.

To put a twist on an old proverb: Faint heart ne’er won fair money. Enjoy the weekend—and happy holidays!

Robert Hackett


[email protected]

Welcome to the Cyber Saturday edition of Data Sheet, Fortune’s daily tech newsletter. Fortune reporter Robert Hackett here. You may reach Robert Hackett via Twitter, Cryptocat, Jabber (see OTR fingerprint on my, PGP encrypted email (see public key on my, Wickr, Signal, or however you (securely) prefer. Feedback welcome.


All that glitters is not digital gold. It was a big week for Bitcoin. Futures contracts began trading on the world’s biggest derivatives exchange on Monday. Coinbase added support for Bitcoin Cash, a controversial “fork,” or spinoff, of Bitcoin. An exchange operated by the New York Stock Exchange’s parent company petitioned the SEC for approval of a Bitcoin ETF, also known as an exchange-traded fund. Goldman Sachs reportedly plans to introduce a cryptocurrency trading desk next year. Oh, and the market crashed. (It has already begun recovering.)

Ransom where? The U.S. has attributed this year’s destructive WannaCry ransomware attacks to North Korea, per a Monday contribution to the Wall Street Journal by Tom Bossert, President Trump’s Homeland Security Advisor. The Hermit Kingdom is also supposedly looting cryptocurrency exchanges and stocking up on Bitcoin, as my colleague and Cyber Saturday coauthor Jeff John Roberts noted in last week’s essay. Fun fact: the recent WannaCry attribution arrived three years to the date after the Obama administration blamed Pyongyang for digitally broadsiding Sony Pictures Entertainment in 2014.

On a scale from “1” to Equifax… Marketing firm Alteryx left an unsecured database chock full of information on about 123 million American households out in the open online. The spreadsheet, available for any Amazon Web Services account holder to peruse, apparently contained data—including addresses, finances, and demographics—collected by Experian, one the big three credit bureaus in the U.S. along with TransUnion and Equifax, which has had its own, much severer problems this year. Security researchers have warned that the exposed data would be useful to spammers and identity thieves.

That’s why they call it “Face”-book. The social network is starting to use facial recognition technology to alert people whenever it detects photo uploads featuring their faces, even in cases where users haven’t been “tagged.” The warning system is designed to help prevent abuse and impersonation on its site. You can opt out of the service and its face-tracking, if you prefer.

Bitcoin mining dominatrix? That’s one way to make money, I guess. And this is, unfortunately, another.

Share today’s Data Sheet with a friend:

Looking for previous Data Sheets? Click here.


“There’s nothing else in the digital currency space like the cryptographic technique underlying . It’s a moonshot: risky, but certain to change everything if it succeeds.”

In a post on Twitter, NSA secret-leaker Edward Snowden lauded “zero knowledge proofs” and related “zk-SNARKs,” advanced, privacy-enhancing mathematical techniques. I shined a light on this subject in my recent profile of “Zooko” Wilcox, whose his Zcash cryptocurrency employs them. Snowden endorsed the approach in a retweet of the story, writing: “Zero-knowledge proofs may be the future of private trade.”


Google is the Panopticon. In his novel Sylvie and Bruno, Lewis Carroll jokes about a nation that has built an entirely unusable, full-scale map of its land. Carroll never envisioned Google, whose digital mapping unit is closer than any other venture to rendering a near-exact reproduction of the world. If you have even a minor interest in cartography, it’s worth perusing this insightful analysis of the evolution of Google Maps, where the pace of innovation—bolstered by new satellite and aerial imagery and combined with computer vision techniques—is leaps and bounds ahead of the competition, like Apple.

Thinking About Becoming an Entrepreneur in 2018? Here are 3 Things You Need to Do

When I became an entrepreneur, I thought I had it all figured out. I had my idea fleshed out, and everyone I talked to loved it.

I quit my job, put a 3 weeks notice in and went off to the races. I started going to networking events, put together PowerPoint presentations and told everyone I could about my idea.

I was even lucky enough to close a few small deals in the first month of being an entrepreneur.  Then reality it. I wasn’t charging enough for my services, and the worst of all, I wasn’t sure if many people needed what I was selling.

I learned the hard way, but overall I don’t regret any of my decision. Now, as a full-time entrepreneur as a ghostwriter and marketing consultant, I’m able to work on my schedule, and I made as much as I did as a full-time employee.

Here are five things I’ve learned during my time as an entrepreneur that can help you be a better entrepreneur in 2018.

I did a few things right away, which I continue to do because of how well it worked.

1. Build relationships using coffee meetings

Never underestimate the power of your network. When I first quit my job, my professional network was nothing. I didn’t know anyone in the tech scene at all.

I first started going to networking events and the few people that i connected with at the game, I would follow up with them and ask them for coffee.

Coffee is a great way to get a little bit more insight into their business and how you can help them. I still take 250 coffee meetings a year.

2. Do a weekend hackathon to test out your idea

I went to a 3-day hackathon within the first few months of me quitting, and it’s the best thing that I could have done in that timeframe. Not only was I able to validate my idea, but I was able to build new relationships with other entrepreneurs who were also interested in my idea.

It doesn’t have to be a weekend hackathon, but it’s a good idea to test your idea out as soon as possible. As an early entrepreneur, it’s easy to think that you’re sitting on a billion dollar idea. A lot of things can go right, but a lot of things can go wrong if you don’t validate that people want what you’re selling.

Validate your idea as soon as possible. A big part of validating your idea is getting people to use your product and give you feedback on it. Don’t be afraid to launch. Feedback is your engine of growth.

Also, don’t be afraid to market the product before it’s done. In reality, the product will never be done. There will always be new features to be built, so don’t fall into the trap of making sure everything is perfect before you can start telling people about it.

3. Work for a startup

If you can’t beat ’em, join em. There is a common misconception that you failed if you don’t build a successful business. I used to think like that too.

The reality is that you’re most likely going to fail a few times before finding and building on a successful idea.

The significant part of joining a startup is that you get to learn from the ground up with minimal supervision. It’s true that everyone is learning as the company grows, and you can use these findings to help build your next business if that’s what you want to do.

Becoming an entrepreneur is a great step towards learning a lot in a short time frame. If you follow the above steps, you might have an easier time at it!

7 Ways to Become a More Effective Lifelong Learner

In any survey of self-made millionaires, you’re likely to notice that they say one of the keys to their success is they never stop learning.

If it has been a while since you left college, you may have lost the habit of learning new things all the time or even developed bad habits that inhibit learning.

So how does one develop the skills to become a better lifelong learner? Well it’s like getting better at anything really. You’ve got to make a point to actually do the work. Before that though you need to know what the work of becoming a lifelong learner involves. Read on to find out.

1. Keeping the commitment  

Improving yourself takes a dedication that most of us find daunting. It takes discipline and focus, often at times when you lack them the most. At the end of the day, you just want to relax and kick back because you earned it, you tell yourself.  

This is the wrong approach. Yes, relaxation is important, but spend portions of the day committed to learning, improving what you are doing by improving your skills.

We all know the phrase “work smarter, not harder.” Working smarter means working more efficiently. Add in breaks, take naps, and work in blocks. Spend one of those blocks learning something that’s been interesting you but you haven’t had time to examine.

This type of dedication to learn can invigorate you so that, when you work, you accomplish more.

2. Schedule it out

Humans love rituals. We all have them; we get ready for work in our own habitual ways, we travel to work in a pattern, and we complete tasks using familiar methods. There’s something reassuring about the familiar.

Learning benefits from the same thing. When you take time to schedule something, it builds anticipation. Set aside some time and space each day to study, and try to keep it the same every day.

Use a scheduling system that helps you stay on task, eliminate distractions, make sure everyone knows what you’re doing, and move into your learning zone.

3. Organize your learning

Often, we find ourselves buried in notes, reminders, and more. Keeping track of it all becomes a task in and of itself. This can drag down your productivity, both in work and in learning.

Plan a method for storing your learning materials, notes, study aids, and more. Take advantage of technology that uses the cloud to keep your data up-to-date and ready for use wherever you may find yourself. Evernote or any number of Apple, Google, or Microsoft productivity products will work.

4. Repeat repeat

Repetitively studying work, key information, and other data can help transfer knowledge from short-term to long-term memory. Learning a language involves short-term memorization of terminology, followed by repeated use in context. A student repeats this process over an extended period to attain true fluency.  

Approach this with purpose, free of distractions and fully engaged. Practice and review will help you master a subject, however working smarter, not harder, helps here also. Some experts have shown that dedicating 20 hours to a skill gives you the foundation you need to gain mastery. 

5. Multi-tasking stops you from learning

Multi-tasking and information overloads kill effective learning. One study found that multi-tasking reduced IQ performance as much as skipping sleep.

The human brain possesses amazing computing abilities, but, like all processors, it can only do so much. To maximize learning time, prioritize what goals you have in learning and knock those out first before moving on to others. You may find that some goals eliminate themselves as you progress.

6. Life balance

Learning involves your entire body, even when you simply sit to learn. How you sit, what you eat, and how much you sleep all affect your ability to learn.

Exercise improves healthy blood flow, which helps the brain work effectively. An unhealthy diet draws away resources to deal with the unhealthy results of poor eating.

Do not sacrifice your sleep. Studies now show that the various stages of sleep greatly impact the brain’s ability to retain and access information. When we are tired, our ability to focus wanes. Determine how much sleep works best for you and stick to that amount as much as possible. 

7. Avoid stress

While many people swear by their all-night cramming sessions before a big test, science argues differently. Increased stress reduces the body’s ability to function. As stress increases, the body releases hormones and neurotransmitters to heighten ability to react to danger, triggering a fear response while the brain increases alertness and anxious feelings. This creates an environment in which a person simply can’t focus or work, let alone learn.

Living and learning mean just that. Don’t create an environment in which you feel too much pressure to do either. Keep life more simple and relaxed and learning will follow. This way, the success you’re after will happen more naturally.

Amazon Is Shuttering Its Music Storage Service

If you’re using Amazon Music Storage to keep your digital music stored in the cloud for playing on a variety of devices, you’ll need to move on to something else.

Amazon has quietly announced that it has removed the ability for free subscription planholders to upload digital music files to its Amazon Music Storage service through its PC and Mac apps. Music that’s already stored in the digital locker can be played until January 2019. At that point, the service will be inaccessible to users on the free tier.

Those have the paid subscription can continue to upload files, but will be limited to 250 songs after their subscription period is over. Those tracks will only be available for one year after the subscription expires and then Amazon will remove them from its service.

Get Data Sheet, Fortune’s technology newsletter

Amazon Music Storage has been available for years as a way for users to upload and access digital music files through the tech giant’s cloud servers. The free plan limited users to 250 uploaded songs. The paid plan allowed users to upload up to 250,000 songs. Once those tracks were uploaded, users could download them to other devices. They could also stream them over the Web to a variety of products.

In a support page listing, Amazon didn’t say why it’s decided to shutter the service. The company still operates its music streaming service, called Amazon Music Unlimited, that lets users stream millions of songs to computers, mobile devices, and other hardware. Amazon Music Unlimited ranges from $3.99 to $14.99 a month, depending on the number of places users want to stream content.

BoE's Carney sees problems with central-bank issued cryptocurrencies

LONDON (Reuters) – Bank of England Governor Mark Carney sees “fundamental problems” with the idea of a digital currency issued by a central bank that could be used by the general public.

The emergence of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies has led some economists to predict the technology could be used one day across entire economies, with digital currencies created by central banks.

Carney told British lawmakers in Parliament on Wednesday that the blockchain technology used in cryptocurrencies conceivably could improve the way transactions are conducted between financial institutions.

But there could be financial stability risks if such an approach were rolled out across the whole economy through a cryptocurrency intended for the general public, he said.

Central banks already use electronic money – only a small proportion of their assets are now backed by gold – but this is exchanged in a centralised fashion, across accounts at the central bank.

Cryptocurrencies allow parties to transact payments directly without a central intermediary, by means of blockchain technology that uses a shared ledger that verifies, records and settles transactions in a matter of minutes.

With no need for a central intermediary to facilitate and track transactions, consumers holding central bank-issued cryptocurrency could open accounts at any bank, including the central bank.

“You (could) create a situation where you can have an instantaneous (bank) run. So as soon as there were any concern, people can switch in their account at the Bank of England,” Carney said.

That could also cause the BoE to accumulate huge volumes of deposits that it would need to invest into different assets.

“There are many talents of the Bank of England, but I think credit allocation across the entire economy would not be a good idea,” he said. “So there are some fundamental problems if you push the retail design all the way down, unless you restrict the amount that people have.”

In September, the Bank for International Settlements said it was too soon to determine whether central banks should issue their own cryptocurrencies.

It concluded that the peer-to-peer nature of the technology meant that a cryptocurrency for consumers could enable the anonymity that cash currently provides. But if that were not considered important, it said, it was unclear what further benefits it could provide.

BoE chief economist Andy Haldane in 2015 floated the idea of abolishing physical cash and introducing a state-run digital currency as a way to give more muscle to central banks that cut interest rates below zero to boost their economies.


Carney on Wednesday repeated the BoE’s view that sharp moves in the value of bitcoin did not present a threat to global financial stability.

Earlier on Wednesday, bitcoin fell more than 10 percent to a one-week low of $15,800 at cryptocurrency exchange Bitstamp, losing almost a fifth of its value from a peak reached just three days ago.

“At present, we don’t view it as a financial stability issue,” Carney said, adding that the combined value of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies was around half the market capitalisation of Apple Inc.

“So it’s significant … but it’s more like an equity-type risk that’s spread fairly widely around the world.”

Additional reporting by David Milliken; Editing by Catherine Evans, Larry King